The following has evaluated to null or missing: ==> title [in template "WEB-INF/template/article.ftl" at line 4, column 10] ---- Tip: If the failing expression is known to be legally refer to something that's sometimes null or missing, either specify a default value like myOptionalVar!myDefault, or use <#if myOptionalVar??>when-present<#else>when-missing. (These only cover the last step of the expression; to cover the whole expression, use parenthesis: (myOptionalVar.foo)!myDefault, (myOptionalVar.foo)?? ---- ---- FTL stack trace ("~" means nesting-related): - Failed at: ${title} [in template "WEB-INF/template/article.ftl" at line 4, column 8] ----


FreeMarker template error: The following has evaluated to null or missing: ==> title [in template "WEB-INF/template/article.ftl" at line 4, column 10] ---- Tip: If the failing expression is known to be legally refer to something that's sometimes null or missing, either specify a default value like myOptionalVar!myDefault, or use <#if myOptionalVar??>when-present<#else>when-missing. (These only cover the last step of the expression; to cover the whole expression, use parenthesis: (myOptionalVar.foo)!myDefault, (myOptionalVar.foo)?? ---- ---- FTL stack trace ("~" means nesting-related): - Failed at: ${title} [in template "WEB-INF/template/article.ftl" at line 4, column 8] ---- Java stack trace (for programmers): ---- freemarker.core.InvalidReferenceException: [... Exception message was already printed; see it above ...] at freemarker.core.InvalidReferenceException.getInstance(InvalidReferenceException.java:131) at freemarker.core.EvalUtil.coerceModelToString(EvalUtil.java:355) at freemarker.core.Expression.evalAndCoerceToString(Expression.java:82) at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.accept(DollarVariable.java:41) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:324) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:54) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:324) at freemarker.core.Environment.process(Environment.java:302) at freemarker.template.Template.process(Template.java:325) at org.apache.struts2.views.freemarker.FreemarkerResult.doExecute(FreemarkerResult.java:185) at org.apache.struts2.result.StrutsResultSupport.execute(StrutsResultSupport.java:208) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.executeResult(DefaultActionInvocation.java:373) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:277) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.ValidationInterceptor.doIntercept(ValidationInterceptor.java:260) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.validation.AnnotationValidationInterceptor.doIntercept(AnnotationValidationInterceptor.java:52) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ConversionErrorInterceptor.doIntercept(ConversionErrorInterceptor.java:139) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ParametersInterceptor.doIntercept(ParametersInterceptor.java:134) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ParametersInterceptor.doIntercept(ParametersInterceptor.java:134) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.StaticParametersInterceptor.intercept(StaticParametersInterceptor.java:199) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.MultiselectInterceptor.intercept(MultiselectInterceptor.java:69) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.DateTextFieldInterceptor.intercept(DateTextFieldInterceptor.java:115) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.CheckboxInterceptor.intercept(CheckboxInterceptor.java:88) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.FileUploadInterceptor.intercept(FileUploadInterceptor.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ModelDrivenInterceptor.intercept(ModelDrivenInterceptor.java:99) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ScopedModelDrivenInterceptor.intercept(ScopedModelDrivenInterceptor.java:139) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ChainingInterceptor.intercept(ChainingInterceptor.java:157) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.PrepareInterceptor.doIntercept(PrepareInterceptor.java:174) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.I18nInterceptor.intercept(I18nInterceptor.java:123) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.ServletConfigInterceptor.intercept(ServletConfigInterceptor.java:171) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.AliasInterceptor.intercept(AliasInterceptor.java:201) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ExceptionMappingInterceptor.intercept(ExceptionMappingInterceptor.java:193) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:247) at org.apache.struts2.factory.StrutsActionProxy.execute(StrutsActionProxy.java:53) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.Dispatcher.serviceAction(Dispatcher.java:577) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ExecuteOperations.executeAction(ExecuteOperations.java:81) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.filter.StrutsPrepareAndExecuteFilter.doFilter(StrutsPrepareAndExecuteFilter.java:143) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:241) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at com.opensymphony.sitemesh.webapp.SiteMeshFilter.obtainContent(SiteMeshFilter.java:129) at com.opensymphony.sitemesh.webapp.SiteMeshFilter.doFilter(SiteMeshFilter.java:77) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:241) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.support.OpenSessionInViewFilter.doFilterInternal(OpenSessionInViewFilter.java:198) at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:76) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:241) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapperValve.invoke(StandardWrapperValve.java:218) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContextValve.invoke(StandardContextValve.java:110) at org.apache.catalina.authenticator.AuthenticatorBase.invoke(AuthenticatorBase.java:506) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.invoke(StandardHostValve.java:169) at org.apache.catalina.valves.ErrorReportValve.invoke(ErrorReportValve.java:103) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngineValve.invoke(StandardEngineValve.java:116) at org.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.service(CoyoteAdapter.java:445) at org.apache.coyote.ajp.AjpProcessor.process(AjpProcessor.java:190) at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol$AbstractConnectionHandler.process(AbstractProtocol.java:637) at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.JIoEndpoint$SocketProcessor.run(JIoEndpoint.java:316) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(Unknown Source) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(Unknown Source) at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.TaskThread$WrappingRunnable.run(TaskThread.java:61) at java.lang.Thread.run(Unknown Source)